Plannings Concept, Features, Types, Procuders And Limitations
This article is about the concept, nature,producer, limitation and type of of planning. Planning is the principal and the basic function of management. It is the start of the process of management system. Before coming in action associated with organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, a supervisor must make plan. Planning is the procedure of thinking before doing or identifying the future course of action to accomplish a desired result.
It is concerned with deciding beforehand how to proceed? Why to do, Where to do? Responding to these relevant questions depends upon cleverness. Therefore, planning is an intellectual process which requires a manager to believe before to arrive action or undertaking any operation. Planning is concerned with setting goals and objectives of the firm and choosing the means to achieve those goals.
It relates with mental process which includes assessing future, setting up objectives, determining guidelines, deciding the actions and developing alternative strategies. Without planning, organization’s other functions become mere activity, producing nothing but chaos. Many government bodies have described planning. Mary Cushing Niles says that-“planning is the mindful process selecting and developing the best plan of action to accomplish a target”. Theo Haimann argued that-“planning is deciding beforehand what is to be achieved”. M.E. Hurley considered that- “planning is deciding in advance what’s to be achieved. The choice is involved because of it of objectives, policies, techniques and programs from among alternatives”.
Thus, planning is just how of looking in the future forward, giving ideas about selecting, deciding and setting objectives. In addition, it relates with strategic planningg of the plan of action of the business. It specifies the goals to be attained in future. 1.Primary function of management: Planning is the primary function of management.
Planning function is to be performed, before other functions are carried out for action. It really is concerned with setting up the goals, identifying guidelines and planning action programs and programmes. So, without setting above things, there is absolutely no meaning of organizing, leading, controlling and directing the activities of the business. 2.Planning is goal focused: To attain certain goals of a business, a plan must prepare yourself.
Planning is worthless and meaningless without goals, so that it should be goal oriented. Planning finds the actions that could lead to the desired objectives quickly and economically. 3.Future oriented: Present plan act in future. Planning is performed for future years plan of action. It helps to decide at present what’s to be done in the foreseeable future.
Forecasting is the foundation of plan and prediction of future is the basis of forecasting. 4.Beginning Point: Planning is the starting place of the procedure of management. Firstly, a manager must prepare plan, then only he can possibly organize, staff, directing and control the business activities. 5.Intellectual process: Planning can be an intellectual process.
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A manager decides what is to be done, where it is usually to be done,how it is usually to be done and what’s to do it. It clears that planning is concerned with decision making process. 6.Upsurge in efficiency: In all the levels and division of the business, planning is concerned with increasing efficiency. 7.Coordination: Planning provide really helps to organize various levels to activities. Planning provides guidelines to do work to all or any the managers and staffs to all levels.
8.Continuous process: Planning is a continuous process upto the life of a business. It is constant process of management.Therefore, a manager is required to watch continuously, modify if needed, revise and modify if required in the light of changed environmental situation. It’s very difficult to recommend a fixed procedure for planning for the business. However, the methods of planning as a generally acceptable process or steps of planning can be adopted with the objective.